Test modification for children with special needs such as cerebral palsy by John Toker, tutor

A student of mine has cerebral palsy. I modified his tests, during the school year, to do two of each type of math problem; he passed the SOL without any accommodations for it. Some students without learning issues, scored at the A level during the normal school year, failed the same SOL as my noted student. In certain cases, there are people who can memorize an inordinate amount of information for a few days, while having a substandard understanding of a given set of material.

 

Pupils with intellectual characteristics that are indicative of intellectual disabilities are as follow:

 

1. They generally learn at a slower pace as relative to their mainstream peers.

 

2. Relevant aspects of lessons often go unnoticed by them.

 

3. Spontaneous illustration of learned skills is usually lacking.

 

4. Abstract concepts and complex curriculum is often too difficult for them to understand.

 

5. Generalizations from specific lesson material are frequently absent from their conclusions concerning respective course material (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

 

IDEA, IDEIA and other Federal laws protect students with intellectual disabilities in the following ways:

 

1. IDEA requires that all children receive education; it mandates that special education services start at the age of a toddler are in place. students are to be given psychometric testing in or order to identify their specific gaps in learning.

 

2. IDEIA requires that general education curriculum is afforded to these pupils (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

General Education teacher’s four roles when working with those who have who deficits in intellectual processing:

 

1. Such students need to their teachers to make them feel as if they are part of the class.

 

2. IEP goals of  learners should be familiar to the instructors.

 

3. Modifications to general education lessons should be made when feasible in order to meet the needs of those with deficits. Creativity and analysis should be applied to lesson plans when collaborating with special education teachers during planning periods.

 

4. Mainstream students should be encouraged to provide peer support in general and when completing coursework; general education teachers should collaborate with special education instructors in order to facilitate such dynamics (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

 

Five strategies or activities for instructors to facilitate success of students with deficits in their intellect:

 

1. Prepare students, ahead of time, for what they need to be doing during a given class periods; this includes taking turns when communicating about a subject matter, handing out materials for class and other events. Such students are then much more likely to follow directions by the teacher and thus fit in more among their peers.

 

2. Safety is essential and needs more reinforcement of steps to keep people safe than the general population; review fire drill procedures, verbally rehearse getting on the correct bus that takes them to their homes, safely crossing streets, and knowing how to call their parents or guardians.

 

3. Acceptance that learning goals should be varied in order to accommodate different learning needs; for example, a student may need fewer of any given type of question on exams or not as many types of them.

 

4. Cooperative learning: subgroups are formed for students to work as a team in order to complete assigned goals. Interdependence facilitates positive interactions with those who have special needs, and whom may otherwise be ignored by mainstream peers.

 

5. Providing hands on, known as experiential instructions includes familiarizing oneself as to what students already know from life experience and helping them apply such life lessons to class work. Manipulatives and other learning tools in the classroom are used to create first hand learning experiences; this often streamlines learning as a process (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 262 to 263). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 264 to 265). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 266 to 268). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 269 to 271). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

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How to reduce bullying of your child at school by tutor, John Toker

Children with emotional disorders, ED often have three key overlapping characteristics over the course of months (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

First ED trait: Relationships with are not sustained by such student (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

Second ED trait: They argue and fight with students in class; this is part of externalizing behavior (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

Third ED trait: Excessively withdraw on a social level on a chronic basis; internalizing behavior is indicative of such affect.

Tips for identifying ED that happens on numerous occasions over an extended number of school days: Behavior that is considered markedly immature for chronological age; for example, adolescents who cling on to their parents arms. When unprovoked engage in conflict while in class, in the school yard and often at home (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

Student with ED often do the opposite in other cases; they excessively withdraw with little or no reason during the teachers lessons and then not meet basic social expectations in the school yard or cafeteria as well; for example, Jill is directed by her teacher to speak more softly because she is being a little too loud. In turn, Jill refuses to speak with her teacher or peers.

Journal about students frequency, duration, and intensity of behavior whom reflects ED characteristics. Teachers should note settings in which such actions take place. Be detail oriented while documenting pupils actions or affect.

 

Keep track of relevant information given by parents about students at issue.

Compare your observations as the teacher with other teachers, include samples of learners’ class work in a multitude of subjects and settings (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

Classroom setting when teaching children with ED; three tips: Tier 1, Rules classroom must be clearly defined as should consequence of breaking them; research based broad spectrum strategies must be central for management and screening of them.

Tier 2, Students with ED challenges are put into small groups as it is conducive to teachers guiding them to self-monitor, self-control, and socializing. Give points or treats to pupils who meet your rules and complete assignments, which is the check-in, check-out (CICO) procedure.

Tier 3, Include a comprehensive team, including parents, colleague teachers, school psychotherapists, and any other professionals at the school who are willing to collectively develop consistent behavioral modification steps and techniques.

 

 

 

 

 
References

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 209 to 214). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 207 to 215). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 217 to 223). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 218 to 234). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

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Teaching students with communication disorders by tutor, John Toker

Fluency, articulation, and voice disorders are different from each other as follows: Fluency disorders reflect gaps in timing and degree of rhyme or meter in which one flows with words; it does not reflect difficulty creating intelligible sounds or relate to sound quality. Articulation disorder is illustrated by how one does not independently put the smallest units of sounds known as phonemes, and differing combinations of them together when attempting to speak to others; timing, and rhythm are not inherently problematic to this issue. Voice disorders involve deficiencies in resonance, pitch, and intensity; fluency, and articulation may or may not be deficits when this disorder is the case (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

Fluency, articulation, and voice disorders are similar in that they all, when deficient, impede language; each aspect is interdependent when trying to make meaningful vocalization. Speech, irrespective of different causality, results in disruption of normal expression of verbal language in oral form. These speech disorders often present at age 3 and frequently, with the right speech therapy are no longer issues by age seven. Fluency, articulation, and voice disorders are more common among boys than girls (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

Students who have fluency, articulation, and voice disorders often feel inferior to those who do not have them in the classroom; they also under perform on an academic basis. Peers usually have less communication with those who are impeded in their oral communication, which leads to isolation from their classmates. Pupils who do not have proper fluency lack the timing in speech necessary to hold listeners’ attention; improper articulation confuses peers as to what they are trying to say to them; poor sound quality of verbal vocalization is often irritating for the listeners. Fluency, articulation, and voice disorders lend themselves to less acceptance of their classmates (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

Instructors who ignore English as a second language, ESL, or locution from those of different culture, and from far away will tend to wrongly diagnose them with speech disorders. Those who have different fluency, articulation, voice, and other anomalies to their normal language or way of speaking will often struggle with English, or most other secondary languages because the fundamental verbal structure is relatively unfamiliar to them. Those who are not locally raised with English as their primary language may be talking correctly if it were not for needing a new language or locution; teachers where they were from would rightly negate them as having speech disorders. For example, rhythm when speaking in Italian is different than English. While articulation of creating phonemes is different between languages, and parts of the United States, it is new, rather than etiologically caused by incomplete neurological development. Resonance, pitch, and intensity may have appealing prosody of speech in other languages or areas of this nation, while discordant with a given teacher’s oral vocalization (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

Speech therapists should be invited into classrooms of students who need review as to whether they have speech disorders; teachers of the respective students should invite them into the settings. If students present as having gaps in their ability to speak, an auditory listening screening is recommended by a given speech therapist as standard of practice. Further, people who appear to be deficient in vocal expression should have their parents or guardians consulted about this; instructors should find an agreement with them as to whether further testing and speech therapy should take place. Sample recordings, made by the teacher, of speech and attempts to communicate with other students should take place in the classroom. Instructors who spend proportionately more time correcting communication shortcoming of learners, should also have them reviewed with a speech therapist . Lack of focus, inability to answer lesson questions, and not presenting as having a general sense of what is being taught as a subject are all shortcomings in language that should be core parts to the basis in which teachers identify communication disorders (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 182to 188). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 182to 189). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 182to 188). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 185to 189). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 185 to 204). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 194 to 197). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

 

 

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Making school go easier for students with ADHD by tutor, John Toker

ADHD interferes with a person’s ability to focus and organize in order to complete tasks.

 

School related issues of ADHD include inattentiveness to classroom taught material and disorganization about what and how to do homework assignments. Consequently, your child’s grades are low, and he or she suffers from low self-esteem.

child, so that it is fresh in your mind.

 

2. Perfection is the enemy of the good, which is a classic expression that means, in this case, if your child has completed his or her homework, and put away the toys, consider it successful evening. Being angry with your child because the one other task was still not done, will leave you continuously annoyed by your son or daughter. While on a walk by yourself, reflect in this non-confrontational setting what makes you, if it applies, a perfectionist, and realize that this is not your child’s issue.

 

3. Trust that through maturity of your son or daughter and steps you and the teacher take to help your child, in time, ADHD issues will reduce or become more manageable. While working with your child focus on the process of doing the best you can as a parent, rather than the end goals that may well take years to achieve.

 

4. Join a support group that has parents coping with their children’s ADHD as its focus; you will gain new coping strategies and share your own with others in the group. Set aside a time, each week, to attend a setting that allows you to be your best self with your child and hear feedback from people who are able to have a level of objectivity that is often difficult to have as the parent.

 

5. Friends and family can often give you a break from looking after your child; this can give you a chance to regroup your best coping strategies in caring for your

 

5 strategies for parents to assist their children in coping with ADHD

 

1. Do not take your child’s lack of focus to your instructions and lack of organization personally; remember your child is doing this because of his or ADHD, rather than trying to make you angry. Remind yourself of this walking into your home just before seeing your

child, so that it is fresh in your mind.

 

2. Perfection is the enemy of the good, which is a classic expression that means, in this case, if your child has completed his or her homework, and put away the toys, consider it successful evening. Being angry with your child because the one other task was still not done, will leave you continuously annoyed by your son or daughter. While on a walk by yourself, reflect in this non-confrontational setting what makes you, if it applies, a perfectionist, and realize that this is not your child’s issue.

 

3. Trust that through maturity of your son or daughter and steps you and the teacher take to help your child, in time, ADHD issues will reduce or become more manageable. While working with your child focus on the process of doing the best you can as a parent, rather than the end goals that may well take years to achieve.

 

4. Join a support group that has parents coping with their children’s ADHD as its focus; you will gain new coping strategies and share your own with others in the group. Set aside a time, each week, to attend a setting that allows you to be your best self with your child and hear feedback from people who are able to have a level of objectivity that is often difficult to have as the parent.

 

5. Friends and family can often give you a break from looking after your child; this can give you a chance to regroup your best coping strategies in caring for your child with ADHD issues. Find people who are flexible with short notice to take over supervision of your child. Support may not have time or energy for regularly watching your son or daughter for hours every week. Albeit, they may well be available for a few hours a  month when you most need it.

 

Resources:

 http://www.chadd.org

http://www.additudemag.com/adhd/article/985.html

 

http://www.empoweringparents.com/reduce-homework-hassles-with-simple-tips.php

 

References

 

ADD/ADHD Parenting Tips. (2015, June 1). Retrieved July 12, 2015.

 

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Good rules for educators to make with students in classrooms by tutor John Toker

1. Follow instructions of your teacher right away. 2. Keep your belongs to yourself, and do not touch or bump up against others or their things. 3. Put your hand up to talk and wait to be called on by the teacher 4. Get permission to leave your seat, otherwise stay in it.5. Begin schoolwork at once and continue completing it during the whole class time 1. Have your homework on your desk 2. Start each class with the teacher being the only one talking, and explain what the class will be doing for an assignment during their class time. 3. Teacher asks students if they have any questions about the assignments. 4. Have the students put their pencils, and papers into their school binders.5. Line up in single file before leaving the classroom Teacher will call out “Class. Class, class, eyes on me” and will have told the students ahead of time that this means all of the students are to stop talking and only pay attention to the teacher, while they sit at their assigned desks; there will be a reminder of what this signal  means in written form on a classroom poster.1. Lead by example when showing respect to all students. Learners tend to immitate actions more than words. 2. Educate students to care about their peers; they learn to be positive with a team like dynamic. Students feel more powerful and secure by being part of a group that is stronger than any individual.3. Negative statements must be countered with positive statements about the disrespected person.

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Team teaching collaborative education by tutor John Toker

Five advantages and Issues with collaborative class settings:

1. Students with special needs benefit from mainstream students by experiencing curriculum that is maintained at a competitive level. Albeit, there may be cases when the curriculum does not need to be modified in its explanation, rather it may be too difficult for some with special needs (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

2. Educators gain greater skills in balancing the learning needs of those who do and do not need accommodations. Effectiveness may not be consistent, so result data must be analyzed by both teachers (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

3.  Learners with special needs may feel more included in a general classroom setting. Co-teachers have more issues to resolve, and therefore must have greater communication in order to resolve them (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

4. If  both collaborative teachers know course curriculum well, then they can fill in the gaps of subject matter by explaining given material in different ways. Albeit, if special education teachers are only prepared to refine explanations of the general education teachers, then mainstream lesson material may not be taught when general education teachers are unavailable (Ripley, 1997).

 

5. Student answers that are evaluated by both teachers allow for feedback about what students are learning, and whether the rubrics reflect the intended lessons. If only one teacher in each class analyzes student answers, then the other teacher will not be contributing to how best to teach students on given subject matters; one teacher may well have an informed opinion on how to adjust the class lessons, while another may be insistent on presenting lessons as they have been in the past (Dunne 2000).

Current skills in co-teaching;

I tend to be flexible, and a good listener if put in team teaching situations. Given that I do not team teach at current, I would need to build back my skills in doing so.

My present day collaborative skills area for improvement:

Co-teaching planning periods need to be used to analyze student answers; this would offer better feedback to both of us as to how we may better approach teaching subjects. We should look closely at the types of answers students are providing, and assess whether lesson material needs to be taught differently, or if rubrics should be adjusted for courses (Dunne 2000).

Five Collaborative teaching techniques:

1. Model A involves two distinct roles between teachers; one is leading as the lecturer, while the other is assessing what people do not understand and clarifying how best to understand curriculum concepts. If the lead teacher explains in lecture form, for example, that their are neutrons and protons in the nucleus of the atom, and that electrons fly around them, the other teacher can clarify to those who have questions about them (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

2. Model B classes have full classes split into smaller groups, while both teachers lecture, and elucidate subject matter; this in effect makes for smaller class sizes. For example, calculating degrees of interior angles for geometry would be taught as a general concept, specific steps to do so, and clarifications would be run side by side by the two teachers at the same time; each of them would speak to a smaller group than the whole class (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

3. Model C teachers have different groups in which the learners are taught aspects of curriculum. For example, those who struggle with the meaning of a pronoun will receive added instruction about them. Albeit, others in the same class who understand what pronouns are, albeit need reinforcement of the concept, would write examples of them (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

 

4. Model D of co-teaching: Class leaders vary from one teacher to the other, while students lead in some cases. Other lessons include independent work being completed by the students. Teaching stations reflect different portions of course curriculum; various students work on different parts depending on what they find challenging and how they learn. Some students may need manipulatives or alternative forms of explanation, while others may not need added accommodations to their exercises (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

 

5. Model E includes collaborative teachers who are both responsible for equally lecturing, illustrating, and modeling the taking notes on what the other instructor is presenting for a given lesson. For example, mind maps may be taught by one teacher, while the other instructor completes it with the students; this could be done for writing a fiction story with an omniscient narrator (Vaughn, & Bos 2007).

 

References

Ripley, S. (1997) The art of teaching: Collaboration between general and special education teachers. ERIC EC Digest

 

Dunne, D. W. (2000). Teachers learn from looking together at student work.

 

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: Developing Success for All Learners. In Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed., p. 71 to 81). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

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Communication with parents at teacher meetings by tutor John Toker

 

 

Parent Communication Plan

 

Listen to parents

         Be sure to let them finish what they are saying.

  • This lets the parents know that you respect their views, and believe that they are able to contribute to the analysis of how best to formulate plans to help their respective children in school.
  • Let parents establish their views every time you have a meeting. Albeit, if the parents are repeating their points many times during a given meeting, and you have offered feed back that you understand their points, you may use judgment as to then interject, and establish that such points have already been made by the parents.

 

Parent Communication Plan

Listen to parents

· Be sure to let them finish what they are saying.
· This lets the parents know that you respect their views, and believe that they are able to contribute to the analysis of how best to formulate plans to help their respective children in school.
· Let parents establish their views every time you have a meeting. Albeit, if the parents are repeating their points many times during a given meeting, and you have offered feed back that you understand their points, you may use judgment as to then interject, and establish that such points have already been made by the parents.

 

Take notes on what is being conveyed in the meeting.

· Parents see the care in which you are trying to be accurate about what happens during meetings with them is a priority for you as the teacher.
· Take notes sparingly so that you can also offer eye contact, and not just look like a court room stenographer.

Summarize what parents have explained, so that it is clear that you have synthesized what they have related to you; simply, you understand what they are trying explain to about their children’s learning needs on a ‘Big Picture’ scale.

· Once parents offer feedback that they know you, as the teacher, are understanding them about their children’s scholastic needs, refrain from added feedback until truly new ideas are brought forth by the respective parents.

 

Establish your stance on addressing students’ needs with their parents with a calm
demeanor.

This allows you, as the teacher, to present as thoughtful about the special needs of their children; it dispels a feeling that your responses are inflexible and ‘one size fits all.’ Give your views only after listening to the parents views. Teachers should state their positions as it relates to students’ scholastic needs enough so that the parents know what they are; try not to repeat them when they are clear to them.

 

Come to an agreement about a plan to help the parents’ children.

· Teachers should be as flexible as possible, while still meeting the school requirements, so that parents feel that they should show the same flexibility, while continuing to meet their children’s learning needs. Implementations of steps to help students cannot be applied unless there is closure between parents and teachers as to what may best help them. An agreement should be made one time after each meeting in which agreements need to be made; avoid aiming for agreements at the beginning or middle of meetings; otherwise you will have too many changes to agreements to avoid confusion over what the final

 

Take notes on what is being conveyed in the meeting.

 Parents see the care in which you are trying to be accurate about what happens during meetings with them is a priority for you as the teacher.

  • Take notes sparingly so that you can also offer eye contact, and not just look like a court room stenographer.

Summarize what parents have explained, so that it is clear that you have synthesized what they have related to you; simply, you understand what they are trying explain to about their children’s learning needs on a  ‘Big Picture’ scale.

Once parents offer feedback that they know you, as the teacher, are understanding them about their children’s scholastic needs, refrain from added feedback until truly new ideas are brought forth by the respective parents.

 

 

Establish your stance on addressing students’ needs with their parents with a calm

demeanor.

 This allows you, as the teacher, to present as thoughtful about the special needs of their children; it dispels a feeling that your responses are inflexible and ‘one size fits all.’ Give your views only after listening to the parents views. Teachers should state their positions as it relates to students’ scholastic needs enough so that the parents know what they are; try not to repeat them when they are clear to them.

 

Come to an agreement about a plan to help the parents’ children.

 Teachers should be as flexible as possible, while still meeting the school requirements, so that parents feel that they should show the same flexibility, while continuing to meet their children’s learning needs. Implementations of steps to help students cannot be applied unless there is closure between parents and teachers as to what may best help them. An agreement should be made one time after each meeting in which agreements need to be made; avoid aiming for agreements at the beginning or middle of meetings; otherwise you will have too many changes to agreements to avoid confusion over what the final agreement will be.

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